Tag Archives: housing

3 Reasons to Gradually Go Green: Healthy Homes Chicago

Gramata Development Corporation - DesignBuild ChicagoRecently I posted on the Four Categories to a Healthy Home:

1) food & nutrition 
2) furnishings  
3) finishes & fixtures  
4) systems

If one of these components is not a part of your healthy homes decision matrix then you’re probably not living a fully healthy lifestyle. Most of us are aware of the food and nutrition category but what about your home furnishings? Your couch probably contains flame retardant chemicals used on the upholstery which when absorbed can be harmful and some research indicates cancer-causing. How about your home finishes such as the volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the paint you just bought for the kids bedroom? They may contain ingredients known to cause illness too. Did you know a low or no-VOC paint is available in most cases for the same price which is a healthier option?  And what about your home systems such as your furnace? I am not talking about whether they operate but how can they be improved over time with a healthier indoor environment mind?
Some or all of these are often overlooked but critically important to a fully healthy home lifestyle and the focus of this book. Most people are not aware of this nor what options are available to them.

That is one of my goals. To make you aware of some of the options and then how to begin to implement them into your lifestyle so you can gradually go green towards a healthy home lifestyle. 

Why should we care about making our homes and communities healthy and what questions should we be asking to make sure we are comfortable that the answer is a resounding “yes”? 

It begins with awareness and knowing what important questions to ask.

Some Questions to Ask:

  • What can I do to make my home healthy?
  • How can I define my goals of a healthy home?
  • Who can I trust to help me with those decisions?
  • What resources are available to help me establish and reach my goals?
  • What decisions will have the greatest impact on my healthy lifestyle?
  • What investments or decisions will have the greatest economic return over time?
  • How can they add value to my home in addition to the health benefits?

The association between our health and our homes has been known for centuries. People spend over 90% of their time indoors including both at home and work. If your home environment is unhealthy or unsafe, it can lead to illnesses that can appear immediately or in other cases it can lay dormant and lead to illness or even death in the months, years and even decades to come.

The quality of our housing effects our quality of life. Our home can and should support both our health and our well-being for the benefit of ourselves and our communities.


According to the US Green Building Council buildings consume 14% of potable water, 40% of raw materials and 39% of energy in the United States alone consuming over 15 trillion gallons of water and 3 billion tons of raw materials annually. 

There are three general reasons to work towards healthy homes and communities.

1) Health Impact: improving our indoor air quality by reducing the emissions and chemical mixtures released by the products, furnishings and stuff we fill our homes with can have a huge impact on our lives and the development of our children. Focusing from the building envelope inwards and down to the finishes and fixtures is the only way to being the steps needed to live in a healthy home. 

2) Savings: “healthy green home systems and materials reduce energy consumption, which in turn reduce your energy bills. They can also increase asset value and profits and decrease marketing time; making your dollar go further for longer.”

3) Environmental Impact: “Implementing green practices into your home or office can help reduce waste, conserve natural resources, improve both air and water quality, and protect ecosystems and biodiversity.” 

Create a list in your daily routine which focuses on one or all three of these components and start going green over time in your life!



How to Go Green: Back To Basics : TreeHugger


How to Go Green: Back To Basics


The future is green, and you just found it. These days you probably feel flooded by dire-sounding environmental news (“the Earth is set to deflate by 2011”) and endless suggestions for greener living (“algae cold-fusion reactors for your shoes”). But fret not. We’re here to help sort things out and get your eco show on the road. Here, we bring it back to basics and break it down into bite sized chunks of simple, everyday ways to live a greener, healthier, more ethical (and ultimately more fun) life. So read on. And remember, if you have a friend, relative, or colleague who needs a little help on the green front, send them this way.

Top Back to Basics Tips Further Reading on Getting Back to Basics
Back to Basics: By the Numbers Back to Basics: Getting Techie
Where to Get the Basics for Green How to Go Green: Index
Back to Basics: From the Archives

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Top Back to Basics Tips

  1. Educate yourselfHow can you solve the problem if you don’t know what the problem is? Luckily, fun, accessible information on green thinking, environmentalism and sustainable living is everywhere these days. Why not start with online sources like our very own guide for How to Go Green. Other websites like Grist, Ideal Bite or Worldchanging also offer great advice and different perspectives. If you prefer the print media, check out magazines like Plenty, Good, or UTNE http://www.utne.com/. And if you’re not much of a reader, documentaries like An Inconvenient Truth, Who Killed the Electric Car?, or the BBC’s Planet Earth are also a good place to start.
  2. TransportHaving got a little reading under your belt, you’re probably itching to get started. One of the biggest impacts we have on the planet is a direct result of the way we move ourselves around. Fortunately, for many of us, this is also easy to do something about. You might consider walking, biking or using mass transit, at least a few days a week. Maybe you can convince your boss to let you work from home? Maybe you can carpool with a friend? If nothing else, you should certainly consider fuel consumption as a major factor in your choice of next vehicle. And when it comes to longer trips, flying is notoriously carbon intensive – so let the train take the strain wherever possible. Find a greener route from A to B with How to Green Your Car, and our Cars and Transportation section.
  3. EnergyWith all the talk of solar panels, fuel cells, building-integrated wind turbines, and flux capacitors, it can be easy to think you need a million bucks to go green at home. Not so. Many of the most effective ways to cut carbon emissions are also the cheapest. Turn lights off when you go out, install energy efficient bulbs and appliances, insulate your home, and keep an eye on consumption. Once you’ve done all that, why not investigate if you can buy green energy from your local utility? Check out our guides on How to Green Your Heating and How to Green Your Electricity for a more detailed plunge.
  4. WaterThis is where the folks in Seattle or the UK start switching off, but stay with us, please! Even if you live in areas of abundant rainfall, water is still a major ecological issue. Clean, drinkable water is precious and needs to be used most efficiently. Every drop of tap water we use also requires energy to filter, purify and transport, and that means fossil fuel emissions. And for those of you in dryer areas, you know only too well that water is becoming an ever-scarcer resource. Fortunately it’s pretty easy to do something about–install water-saving shower heads and aerators, turn the tap off when you’re brushing your teeth, switch to more efficient appliances, or collect rainwater for use in the garden. All this and more can be found in our guide, How to Green Your Water. For those wanting to go a little more hardcore, the Navy Shower, or the “selective flush” are worth a try–if the comments on these posts are anything to go by, you’ll be in good company!
  5. FoodWe’ve all got to eat, and most of us do it every day. It stands to reason that our collective food choices have a huge impact on the planet, and with the global food industry shipping products further and further around the world, and with farming becoming ever more intensive, this impact is only getting bigger. Fortunately, there is a resistance underway. More and more people are getting interested in sustainable food systems. To bring it back to basics, there are four principles that can help guide you to greener meals: eat local, eat seasonal, eat organic, and finally, eat less meat. For a comprehensive guide to a more sustainable diet, check out How to Green Your Meals and the Food and Health category.
  6. WasteNot so many years ago, waste was THE environmental issue. If you recycled, you were green. If you didn’t, you weren’t. With so many topics on the environmental agenda these days, things aren’t so simple. But waste is still a big deal. Every item thrown away has taken energy and resources to manufacture and transport, and it will take even more energy and resources to process and dispose of, whether through landfill or recycling. So the old adage still rings true: reduce, reuse, recycle. And don’t forget to compost! Of course we have a guide on How to Green Your Recycling, and you can find it here. Online resources like Freecycle or Ebay can also help you find a happy home your unwanted goods.
  7. ThreadsMost folks understand that food, energy, water, and transport are major environmental factors, but what about clothing? Even consumers who always eat organic may happily be wearing garments that were liberally sprayed with noxious chemicals. Cotton is, in fact, one of the most heavily sprayed crops on the planet, so it stands to reason that our choice of clothing can have a major ecological impact. Fortunately, solutions are out there. Organic cotton, and other alternative fabrics like hemp, flax or bamboo are becoming increasingly common, as are high-end fashion items from recycled materials. And then, of course, there are the trusty vintage and thrift stores so beloved by students everywhere–style never goes out of fashion. More digging through the racks can be found in our Fashion and Beauty and How to Green Your Wardrobe.
  8. Personal careEver since The Body Shop first hit the high street in the Eighties, there’s been an increased awareness about the impacts of personal care products on both the environment and on our health. Fortunately, there has also been a huge increase in the number of companies providing more sustainable alternatives. Check out our guide to women’s personal care and the Fashion and Beauty section, and stay tuned for a guide for the fellas. But remember, less is almost always more when it comes to green living–that hemp-based, yak’s milk lip blusher may be the greenest product of its kind on the market, but going ‘au natural’ takes you one step further!
  9. Furniture & décorMany of us spend staggering amounts of money on furniture during our lifetime. Now most TreeHugger’s will be aware that buying tropical hardwoods from Amazonian clear-cuts is a poor way to look after our natural heritage, but what are the alternatives? Fortunately, the industry is responding to concerns about its sourcing practices, and stylish furniture from certified, sustainably harvested and/or recycled and salvaged materials is becoming increasingly common. More details can be found in our furniture guide and in the Design and Architecture category.
  10. Keep it cleanNow you’ve spent all this time putting your house in order with organic clothing and chemical-free furniture, why douse it in chemicals to keep it clean? Many everyday cleaning products are made up of pretty nasty constituents, yet there are natural alternatives that work just as well. Take a look at our How to Green Your Cleaning.

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Back to Basics: By the Numbers

  • Five: Number of planets we would need if everyone lived like the average North American. If everyone lived like the average European, we’d need three. Unfortunately, we only have one.
  • 500 billion to 1 trillion: Plastic bags used by shoppers each year. This translates to about 150 bags a year for every person on earth. Remember to bring your own!
  • 83 percent: Percentage of Americans who now say global warming is a “serious” problem. This is up from 70 percent in 2004.
  • 941 and 1,023: Pounds of greenhouse gases added each year from one person eating three burgers per week.
  • 2.5 to 1:The ecological footprint of the average American, compared to that of the average Italian.

Sources: World Wildlife Fund, Algalita, WebWire, Footprint NetworkBack To Top Λ

Back to Basics: Getting Techie

What is “sustainability”?Sustainability has many definitions, but it is most commonly described as “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs,” according to Wikipedia.

LOHASis an acronym for Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability, a term used to describe the market segment interested in green and natural living products, organics, renewable energy, energy efficiency, and socially responsible investing. According to Wikipedia, it is a market worth $227 billion in the United States alone.

Emerging TechnologiesFor those wanting more in-depth reading on environmentalism and/or the emerging technologies and industries that are taking us towards sustainability, check out the works of eco-icons like William McDonough and Michael Braungart, Amory Lovins, Hunter Lovins, and Paul Hawken, to name but a few. The Worldchanging book: A User’s Guide to the 21st Century is also an excellent source of inspiration.

Climate Science

If the “hot glacier on glacier action” in An Inconvenient whet your appetite for the complicated, often confusing world of climate science, there can be no better place to start than Real Climate–it’s much more stimulating than you might think.

Techie WizardryEqually, if you want to stay up-to-date on the latest developments in thin-film solar, hydrogen fuel cells, wind energy, heat pumps, or any other techie wizardry, look no further than our friends at Renewable Energy Access.

Where to Get the Basics for Green

Green Publishers



Solar Chargers

Energy Efficient Bulbs

Local Food

Eco Clothing

Green Furniture

Personal Care

Cleaning and Household Products

Feminine Hygiene

Back to Basics: From the Archives

Dig deeper into these articles on getting back to basics from the TreeHugger and Planet Green archives.

TreeHugger’s Green Basics series breaks it down, including topics like local food, carbon footprints and much more.

Learn all you want to know (and more) about going green from the guides for How to Go Green.

If you’re thinking of eating more locally, you could do a lot worse than checking out our picks of local food resources, or green restaurants and the best in green drinks.

For those not ready or able to install solar in their homes, we help pick out some solar chargers that can help you get at least a little juice from the sun.

Getting married? What better time to cement your eco-convictions? Check out our top five picks on green weddings, or the comprehensive How to Green Your Wedding.

TreeHugger reveals why swapping is the new shopping.

And as you reading this screen, you should probably start thinking of ways to reduce your computer’s energy use. We’ll help. While you’re at it, take a look at our advice on energy efficient televisions too.

Not sure you can free yourself from car culture? If these folks can do it in LA, we can all take steps in the right direction at least. Even if you don’t feel you can go cold turkey, take a look at our guide on how to green your car for easy steps in the right direction.

Wanting to grown your own food? Why not explore the concept of permaculture? Check out our posts here, here, and here.

And for those who still think eco is all about nuts and berries,take a look at our legendary and very naughty guide to greening your sex life.

And when you reach the end of your long, green life, TreeHugger helps you go out as you lived-in green style. Check out our top tips for eco-friendly burials.

Further Reading on Getting Back to Basics

Get even more info on getting back to basics from these other worthwhile sources.How to Go Green offers accessible daily posts, hints and advice on how to green your life. You’d also do well to check out the drilldown in TreeHugger Picks.

Similarly, Ideal Bite is known for good, green info that’s easy to assimilate.

For a more philosophical angle, check out Tao of Change. [Full disclosure: This TreeHugger also works with, and occasionally posts on, the Tao of Change].

Worsted Witch and Green La Girl are always excellent sources of information on all things fab and green, especially relating to Fair Trade.

National Geographic’s Green Guide offers useful hints and advice for simple eco-actions – particularly family oriented stuff.

Health.com offers a list of resources for starting out on the road to green living–no mention of TreeHugger though! Oh well, we can’t be everywhere…

The Solar Living Institute offers practical environmental education on all aspects of sustainability.

Check out the spread of energy efficient light bulbs in your area via 18seconds.org

For those interested in permaculture, Permaculture Magazine and Permaculture Activist are fertile resources.

Green Car Congress provides up-to-date information on moves towards a more sustainable automotive industry, and for more consumer oriented reports, check out ACEEE’s GreenerCars.comNatural Resources Defense Council offers up a selection of articles on green living, from cloth diapers, through fighting global warming, to greening your business.

Jim Gramata
The Gramata Realty Group
2214 N Lincoln Avenue Chicago, IL 60614

Local sales of homes in foreclosure jump 65% in 3Q


Local sales of homes in foreclosure jump 65% in 3Q – chicagotribune.com

Sales of Chicago-area homes in the foreclosure process but not yet repossessed by banks soared during the third quarter, RealtyTrac reported Thursday.

The online foreclosure marketplace said 3,531 pre-foreclosure homes in the greater Chicago area sold in the three months that ended in September, up 34 percent from the second quarter and 65 percent year-over-year. Separately, third-quarter sales of repossessed, bank-owned properties rose to 5,731 properties, up 37 percent from June and 45 percent from 2011’s third quarter.

Increased sales of distressed homes are a good sign for the market’s long-term health because overall prices will rise as discounted properties are removed from the market. Also, the increase in pre-foreclosure short sales has enabled homeowners to benefit from the Mortgage Forgiveness Debt Relief Act, which does not treat the forgiven part of the unpaid debt as taxable income. The legislation is set to expire at year’s end.

Natiionally, the 98,125 pre-foreclosure short sales completed during the third quarter just outnumbered the sale of 94,934 bank-owned properties.

“The shift toward earlier disposition of distressed properties continued in the third quarter as both lenders and at-risk homeowners are realizing that short sales are often a better alternative than foreclosure,” said Daren Blomquist, a RealtyTrac vice president.

However, he added, “The prospect of being taxed on potentially tens or hundreds of thousands of dollars in additional income may motivate more distressed homeowners to forgo a short sale and allow the home to be foreclosed.”

On average, Chicago-area homes sold through short sales, a transaction where the homeowner sells the property for less than the amount owed on the mortgage, with the bank’s permission, sold for an average discount of 41 percent from non-distressed sales. Bank-owned homes sold at an average discount of 54 percent.

RealtyTrac said sales of distressed properties accounted for 28 percent of Chicago-area home sales during the third quarter. The company’s definition of the Chicago area extends from southern Wisconsin to Northwest Indiana.

mepodmolik | Twitter @mepodmolik

via email

Jim Gramata
Managing Team Broker
The Gramata Realty Group
2214 N Lincoln Avenue Chicago, IL 60614


Fiscal cliff fears prompt Hamptons’ rich to dump real estate

You would think someone who was intelligent enough to amass enough wealth to afford homes like these would not react out of fear or such stupidity….of course it is the Hamptons and there are no clear answers yet out of Washington….

Fiscal cliff fears prompt Hamptons wealthy to dump real estate before Jan. 1


Hampton homeowners are racing to get rid of their properties in the hope of pre-empting the onslaught of higher capital gains taxes that are scheduled to hit on Jan. 1.

A fiscal cliff deal could result in a 39 percent rise on short-term investments and a 5 percent increase on long-term gains. Additionally, the country’s top earners will be slammed with a 3.8 percent Obamacare surtax on all gains.

Enzo Morabito, a top Hamptons-based brokericon1.png with New York firm Douglas Elliman, described the rush to sell as a “frenzy.”

“People know they save money if they sell now. I have very willing sellers and hot buyers who want to take advantage of the low interest rates that might go away next year as well,” Morabito told The Daily News.

Hampton-area brokersicon1.png are anticipating 30 homes to close before the new year, with values varying between $1 million and $25 million.

Morabito’s team have already closed on eight homes, including two mega-mansions for a cool $6.9 million and $14.9 million.

Ernie Cervi of Corcoran Group is also reaping the benefits of the frenzy. He’s seen a $25 million estate close two weeks after it went to contract, and his division has an exclusive listing on a $3.55 million bayfront home.

“It’s off the charts. The feeling here is reminiscent of the market highs of 2005,” Cervi declared.

Homeowners are not taking any risks either, cutting prices to sell as quickly as possible.

Paul Brennan, another broker with Doulglas Elliman, backed this up.

“We had a beachfront seller in Southampton who reduced his home 15 percent to $23 million this week. The window is closing. If you’re anticipating any fiscal cliff, you better sell now.”

Top Ten Green Products of the Year Are Not Sexy, But They Will Make A Difference. : TreeHugger


BuildingGreen’s Top Ten Green Products of the Year Are Not Sexy, But They Will Make A Difference.

Proglaze ETA Engineered Transition Assemblies/Promo image

The BuildingGreen Top Ten Products awards remind me of the Oscars. Everybody watches them and talks about them, and pretty much ignores the Scientific and Technical awards given out two weeks earlier. The BuildingGreen awards are like that; they are scientific and technical, are generally not particularly photogenic. I mean, Proglaze ETA Engineered Transition Assemblies from Tremco are not exactly the George Clooney of green building, even if they reduce heating loads and prevent moisture or air quality problems. Others show better on the red carpet.

Haiku/Promo image

Much sexier is the Haiku Fan. BuildingGreen writes:

Most ceiling fans use low-cost, AC motors that offer poor energy efficiency; the fans themselves are often poorly made, loud, and unattractive. Haiku ceiling fans, manufactured by Big Ass Fans, have brushless, electronically commutated DC motors for increased energy efficiency. Designed for both residential and commercial applications, Haiku ceiling fans use 2-30 watts, significantly exceeding Energy Star requirements.

The Haiku is from Big Ass Fans. When I first wrote about them, I titled my post Great idea, Dumb Name and thought that architects wouldn’t specify a product with such a name. Everyone called me a prude and the company sent me a rubber donkey. Interestingly, two websites covering the BuildingGreen products of the year call it Big A** and the Haiku has its own website that downplays Big Ass. Is America getting even more prudish than it was six years ago?

Amorim expanded-cork boardstock insulation

Amorim expanded-cork boardstock insulation/Promo image

Perhaps these awards are sexier than I gave them credit for. We are big fans of cork for so many reasons; it’s a renewable resource (bark is harvested every nine years), maintaining cork production protects the natural habitat of the short-toed eagle and the Iberian lynx, it employs 62,000 workers in a country seriously hit by the Euro-recession and protects an area half the size of Switzerland from more mindless real estate development.

BuildingGreen also notes that cork insulation is made without harmful blowing agents or halogenated fire retardants.

Fram/Public Domain

Fridtjof Nansen lined the interior of the Fram with seven inches of cork; it kept him warm for years in the Arctic and kept Amundsen toasty in the south. 120 years later, it still insulates the boat on display in Oslo.

More on cork in TreeHugger:
Yes To Cork — Save Forests, Jobs and the Iberian Lynx
Cork vs Plastic: How Real Cork is Harvested and Why It Matters
Inside the Cork Wars
Corticeira Amorim, Portugese Cork Supplier’s Sustainability Report

Atlas CMU block with CarbonCure

Atlas Block/Promo image

Wait a second, this is getting sexier by the moment. I have spent years complaining about concrete and how 5% of CO2 emissions come from making the stuff. Now Canadian block manufacturer Atlas Block (which we wrote about earlier for their use of Poraver glass beads) is using CarbonCure technology to actually inject CO2 into the concrete.

[Atlas Block takes] CO2 supplied from local industrial sources and injects it directly into concrete masonry units (CMUs) during production using a specially designed mold. Atlas Block is using the CarbonCure system primarily to reduce the carbon footprint of its products, but injecting CO2 into CMUs during manufacture also improves their strength, reduces the amount of portland cement required, and speeds curing. Atlas Block also offers products with post-consumer recycled glass. Atlas Block / CarbonCure is the first product brought to market that sequesters CO2 without requiring a dramatic change in current manufacturing processes.

That’s a very big deal. I won’t get to the point where I call concrete green, but this is certainly better. See:
Concrete: Can it be Green?
BuildingGreen Tells You Everything You Ever Wanted To Know About Concrete

Viridian reclaimed wood

Viridian Flooring/Promo image

No, science fiction author Bruce Sterling has not gone into the flooring business. But some of his Viridian Design principles certainly apply to Viridian Reclaimed Wood:

Huge quantities of wooden pallets, crates, and packing materials used to ship goods to the U.S. are discarded daily, wasting a valuable resource and clogging our landfills. In its Oregon facility, Viridian Reclaimed Wood processes these materials from the Port of Portland and then creates flooring, tabletops, paneling, veneers, and other products for use in commercial and residential buildings.

Lets just hope that the flooring doesn’t include the Viridian principle of “Planned Evanescence”: “the product and all its physical traces should gracefully disintegrate and vanish entirely.”

GeoSpring hybrid electric water heater from GE

GeoSpring hybrid electric water heater from GE/Promo image

This isn’t just an efficient water heater (although it is that, being a heat pump that is twice as efficient as a conventional electrical resistance water heater) but it is also at the forefront of a manufacturing revolution in the USA. Charles Fishman wrote a terrific article in the Atlantic Monthly that discusses it:

This year, something curious and hopeful has begun to happen, something that cannot be explained merely by the ebbing of the Great Recession, and with it the cyclical return of recently laid-off workers. On February 10, Appliance Park opened an all-new assembly line in Building 2—largely dormant for 14 years—to make cutting-edge, low-energy water heaters. It was the first new assembly line at Appliance Park in 55 years—and the water heaters it began making had previously been made for GE in a Chinese contract factory.

BuildingGreen doesn’t explain why anyone would want a 50 US gallon water heater, that seems huge to me.

Other Best Products:

OK I take back my introduction. It may be hard to get excited about WUFI software from Fraunhofer IBP and Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Cyber Rain smart irrigation controllers, (who needs lawns, anyways?) but there are some seriously sexy products in this year’s list after all.

Tags: Awards | Green Building

Barbara Corcoran to Move-Up Buyers: DO IT NOW!

“Right now, if you are upgrading to a bigger house, even if you’re selling at 10% off, you buy your new house at 10% off. Price appreciation is going to go much higher than people anticipate.”

Barbara Corcoran to Move-Up Buyers: DO IT NOW!.

The Risks of Split-faced Concrete Block Building Materials

Special Segment: Verge of Collapse?. On this very hot (now) topic on split face block construction home owner’s should be asking whether it is a good idea to purchase a home with this material. Some professionals interviewed here are suggesting replacing the material and others advising simply treating it will be sufficient,  Which is the method home buyers should be consider when purchasing a home?

What are the health risks of not treating the material if you own a home? Water infiltration can lead to mold which poses obvious health hazards if not identified and removed quickly.

Some home inspectors say a building material in many brand new homes all over Chicago may be putting homeowners at serious risk this winter.

It’s called split face block, a type of concrete used for exterior walls.

More than a dozen homeowners dealing with split face block problems contacted by ABC 7 for this report refused to talk on camera because they say talking about this hot button issue might hurt their home values.

“It’s embarrassing, you know, you spent all this money on a home and look at it, look what’s happening,” said one homeowner.

It’s the topic so taboo for Chicago homeowners that many won’t talk about it. One West Side resident wanted to remain anonymous.

“We weren’t sure exactly where the water was coming from,” he said. “You start seeing the drywall starting to peel, you know, it’s disappointing .. You’d actually see the nails and the two by fours, you wouldn’t need a stud finder, you’d see them right through the drywall.